Water is the most wonderful gift of nature. Water is most useful and abundant compound in the earth. Water is not only essential for human lives, animals, plant lives but also has a unique importance in industries. The textile industry uses water very intensively. Water is the main principle medium in the textile industry to apply dyes and various finishes.
Thus the textile wastewater treatment has been carried in many companies so that water can be reused. Due to the scarcity of water, the cost of the water is rising. Thus the environmental regulations have led the textile industries to seek the innovative, advanced and efficient wastewater treatment solutions.
The textile wastewater treatment helps in reducing the operational costs and helps in maintaining the regulatory compliance. Major pollutants in the textile industries are high suspended solids, heat, color, chemical oxygen demand, acidity and many other soluble substances.
To remove all kind of impurities from the wastewater there are some processes. These processes are divided into three categories i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary process includes screening, sedimentation, equalization, neutralization, chemical coagulation and mechanical flocculation.
The secondary process includes an aerated lagoon, trickling filtration, activated sludge process, oxidation ditch. The tertiary process includes oxidation technique, electrolytic precipitation and foam fractionation, membrane technologies, electrochemical processes, ion exchange, photocatalytic degradation adsorption and thermal evaporation.
In the textile industries, the water acts as an important substance for the production. Water is treated for many production applications in this industry. Some of the applications include fabric dying, fabric finishing processes, printing which consumes around 55-60% of the total water consumption. Other applications include process water which is used for cleaning the raw fabric material and consumes around 40-45% of the process water.
Removing the impurities of water for the textile purpose is very much important as the toxin which is present in the effluent cause a serious threat to human life and their surroundings as well for the ground and surface water resources. The textile industry should monitor the textile effluent continuously and properly treat the wastewater before the disposal of the water bodies and save the depleting natural water resources.
It is mainly recommended that proper legislation should be taken in the textile industry. There are many water technologies which work in designing, and supply innovative, optimized and environmentally friendly water and helps in the textile wastewater treatment for the well productive operation of the manufacturers.